Free Ebook: The Ultimate Personal Injury Compensation Guide 2018-02-02T17:06:22+00:00
Personal Injury Ebook

FREE EBOOK

The Ultimate Personal Injury Compensation Guide

This guide is your way into a greater understanding of compensation. Whether you are making a personal injury claim, thinking about doing so, or just interested in knowing more about compensation, we hope this guide will be useful to you.

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Written by an experienced personal injury solicitor

Welcome to The Ultimate Personal Injury Compensation Guide!

This guide is your way towards a greater understanding of compensation. Whether you are making a personal injury claim, thinking about doing so, or just interested in knowing more about compensation, we hope this guide will be useful to you.

Personal injury can occur in many different ways though not all will give rise to a compensation claim. There must be some element of fault, in someone other than yourself, for you to have the possibility of bringing a claim. Some examples include injuries you have suffered through:

  • Negligence – such as an accident at work, a road traffic collision, a slip or trip, or clinical negligence.
  • Criminal assaults.
  • Defective products.
  • Breaches of contract.

Each one of these examples in could easily be the subject of their own guide. The way in which an injury has occurred – and proving that someone else was at fault – are topics which are beyond the scope of this guide.

Legal Definitions – Elements of a Personal Injury Claim

There are several elements to a personal injury claim: liability, causation, and quantum. This guide focuses solely on quantum but it is helpful to have an idea of what all three terms mean. Each element must be proved to make a successful claim.

Liability – The question of who is legally responsible for the incident. You could view it as who is to blame, but be aware that blame does not always mean liability. For example, a cleaner who leaves a puddle of water on the floor might be blameworthy for causing someone to slip, but their employer could also be liable for the incident.

Causation – The question of how harm or loss was caused. For an injury claim, you must prove that the injuries you suffered were a consequence of the incident in question. This is the case even if liability for the accident is accepted by the party you are claiming from.

Quantum – It sounds like something from a sci-fi film, but it really means ‘amount’ – the amount of damage or harm you have suffered. Or, to look at it another way, the amount of compensation you are claiming. You must prove the extent of your losses and injuries in order to be awarded appropriate compensation for them.

This guide concentrates on the compensation side of things, providing easy to follow, yet detailed, information. This means looking at:

  • What you can claim compensation for.
  • The aims of compensation.
  • How injuries and losses are valued.
  • How injuries and losses are proved.

Compensation is a vital part of any personal injury claim. In other words, the question of ‘how much is it worth?’ You might hear this referred to as the ‘quantum’ of a claim (see above). In the same way that there can be disputes over fault for an accident, there can be disputes over quantum as well.

Making a compensation claim can feel like a big step into the unknown. It can also be a big undertaking. Three things can help you to prepare for any challenges ahead:

  • A strong support network. In particular, family and friends who are there to support you through a challenging episode of your life.
  • The right legal representation.
  • Knowledge. Taking the time to find out more about a compensation claim is very useful preparation. That’s where this guide comes in. There’s a reason why horror films don’t show the monster straightaway – the unknown is scary! By peeling away the mystery around compensation claims, we hope this guide will lay your fears to rest. It can also make you feel more involved in the claims process and less reliant on your solicitors for information.

With everything you see and hear about compensation claims, it can be difficult to get a clear picture of what they actually involve.

American influences – especially from TV and film – might lead you to expect multi-million dollar payouts, attorneys duelling in front of a jury, and huge settlements for spilling hot coffee on yourself just because the cup didn’t tell you it would be hot!

Closer to home, newspaper headlines about personal injury claims are more likely to focus on the seemingly inevitable onset of a similar ‘compensation culture’ in the UK.

It is hard to find a true indication of the personal challenges you will face when making a claim. A good rule of thumb is to forget all you have seen on TV or film and through the media because, in reality, none of this will be your experience of a compensation claim.

You are more likely to encounter some hard truths instead. Each claim has its own unique circumstances so the impact of these may vary in your case:

  • A personal injury claim will not be done in a matter of weeks.
  • A personal injury claim is not a ‘get rich quick’ scheme.
  • A personal injury claim will require your involvement.
  • A compensation award will not make you better from your injuries on its own. It can make your life easier and help you to pay for treatment but the end of your claim does not necessarily mean the end of the harm you have suffered.
  • A personal injury claim is not a way of getting revenge upon the blameworthy party – it is about helping to get your life back.

Personal injury claims are essentially ‘one-off’ events. When a claim is completed or settled, that’s it – it cannot be reopened or continued later. Compensation is also evaluated and paid as one lump sum in most cases. The sum should take into account the losses and injuries you have already experienced, as well as any future losses and injuries which can be attributed to the accident. There are several exceptions to this, however, and these are looked at in a later section of the guide: ‘When Can Compensation Be Paid?’

This guide aims to give you as much information as possible on claiming compensation for a personal injury, but presented in a way that is clear and easy to understand.

It is organised into sections, each covering a different category of loss that you might claim for. You might feel that some of the effects of these different losses (or ‘heads of damage’ as they are called) might overlap. However, the approach taken by courts and legal professionals is to consider and deal with each loss as distinctly as possible.

You will come across a number of features throughout the guide, which are intended to keep things clear:

  • Legal Source – Don’t worry, this guide isn’t going to be filled with cases and statutes like a law textbook. But it can be helpful to know where some of the more significant legal principles come from. The law of England and Wales is formed from Acts of Parliament and from influential case decisions made by judges. This case law is sometimes referred to as ‘the common law’. So the legal sources in this book will sometimes be from Acts of Parliament (or statutes) and sometimes from common law case authorities.
  • Definitions – The law has a language all of its own. Technical terms are often used because they give very precise meanings, but they can also be confusing if you haven’t come across them before. Knowing a few of the more commonly-used terms can be useful, so this guide will provide definitions of them. These definitions are also collected together in the Glossary.
  • Ask Your Solicitor – This icon indicates a particularly large or detailed topic which cannot be dealt with fully in this guide. If you wish to find out more about the topic, we recommend that you discuss it with your solicitor.
  • Case Studies – Theory is all well and good, but sometimes a real world example can go a lot further to explaining an idea. The case studies in this guide put information into context, all using circumstances from actual cases. This can be especially handy if you have not yet begun a claim, or you have not yet encountered a topic in your claim.
  • Key Points – At the end of each chapter, a list of the key points to bear in mind will be provided. If you are short on time, you could do a lot worse than to just skim read these key point lists for each topic.

At the very start of this section, we explained how many ways there are for personal injury claims to arise. Rather than pack each explanation full of terms for each possible situation, the guide will use some basic terms to cover all kinds of claim. These will be:

  • Accident – This is used to refer to the wrong you have suffered. It may have been a long way from being an accident (such as a criminal assault) but the term has the advantage of being often used in everyday speech for an incident which has caused a personal injury.
  • Defendant – This is used to refer to the target of your claim and whoever will be compensating you in one. In some situations, these might not be the same person. For example, with most road traffic accidents the party you are claiming against (the other driver) will probably not be the same party who will end up paying your compensation (their insurance company). For ease, the guide will refer to all parties on ‘the other side’ of your claim as the Defendant.

This guide is no substitute for legal advice or representation – nor does it claim to be! In any personal injury claim, it is recommended that you instruct a firm of solicitors who specialise in personal injury cases. Firms of solicitors are subject to legal regulation on how they operate.

Ask Your Solicitor – Legal Regulation: Solicitors and Non-Solicitors

Not all lawyers are created equal! In fact, the term ‘lawyer’ is not the same as ‘solicitor’.

If a legal practitioner has the title of ‘solicitor’ it means they have met certain training requirements and their work is regulated by the Solicitors Regulation Authority (the SRA). ‘Lawyer’, ‘Paralegal’, ‘Claims Executive’ etc, do not denote any such standards.

Regulation brings with it a number of protections for clients that use the services of a solicitor.

It is important to make sure you get the best standards of advice in your claim and that you are legally protected should anything go wrong with your claim.

For more information, read Truth Legal’s article on the subject.

Another crucial consideration is to choose a firm of solicitors that you trust. Making a personal injury claim where this trust does not exist is guaranteed to be a much more difficult process. You have to feel confident in the advice your solicitors are giving to you, and feel assured that they are acting in your best interests.

If your case has already been assigned to a firm, you are completely within your rights to choose another firm of solicitors to act for you instead. It is common for you to be allocated to a firm if you are claiming through your insurance company or your trade union for example. Don’t worry though, switching solicitors is remarkably simple.

MEET THE AUTHOR

Andrew Gray

My name is Andrew Gray. I am the owner and founder of Truth Legal solicitors. I qualified as a solicitor in 2007. Before setting up my own personal injury law firm in 2012, I worked for the largest personal injury law firm in the country.

I have 11 years of experience of representing injured people. This guide represents the culmination of that experience, seeing the different areas where clients have had questions. The case studies in this guide are all based upon my experiences in practice. However, some details have been changed to maintain the confidentiality of the clients involved.

If you wish to find out more about anything discussed in this guide, please feel free to contact Truth Legal. We are more than willing to help you with any legal problems or queries you might have.

Andrew Gray

Chapters

Read a summary of each chapter of the guide before downloading.

You could see the injuries you have suffered as the main part of your personal injury claim. After all, it is your injuries which have the greatest effect on your life and, in most cases, lead to all of the other losses in your claim occurring – for example, you wouldn’t have lost two weeks of earnings if you had been fit and healthy enough to work.

The injury element of a claim is referred to in a number of ways. To make matters a bit more confusing, the different terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Watch out for the subtle differences between each term, however…

In this chapter, we explain what injury compensation is actually compensating you for, how injuries are proved and how injuries are valued.

When suffering an injury, your first intention will naturally be to recover from it. To undo the effects of the accident – as much as possible – almost certainly means undergoing treatment in one form or another. Even if a complete recovery may be impossible, treatment can help to manage symptoms and ease the process of adapting to a new way of life.

You can include costs for treating and managing your injuries in your personal injury claim. There are many ways such costs can be incurred. Some examples are:

  • Medication and prescription costs.
  • Rehabilitation and treatment costs – e.g. physiotherapy, acupuncture, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).
  • Private hospital fees.
  • The costs of equipment and other aids – e.g. crutches, wheelchairs, prosthetics.

This chapter discusses early rehabilitation, proving and valuing treatment costs and future losses.

Your income can be a major concern after suffering a personal injury. If your injuries prevent you from working, losing some or all of your earnings for a period of time can be a natural consequence.

Not everyone will suffer loss of earnings from an accident. You might be able to continue work or you might receive your usual wage despite taking time off. A lot will depend on:

  • The severity of your injuries.
  • The kind of work you do.
  • Your employment status.

The first two are fairly self-explanatory. The more debilitating your injuries, or the more demanding your job, the more likely you are to need time off. However, your employment status plays just as important a role, and also determines how you go about proving the earnings you have lost.

This chapter discusses what can be claimed for, proving and valuing loss of earnings, future loss of earnings and also looks at your employer’s losses.

This head of damage is one which most people rarely think about when making a claim. Yet if you have suffered injuries with permanent effects, it is entirely possible for your earnings to be affected in the future.

So what does claiming for loss of earning capacity actually mean?

In essence, it means you are seeking compensation for a possible disadvantage on the open labour market which you might face in future.

This might sound a bit like a claim for future loss of earnings. There is some overlap between the two: they both aim to compensate for the accident’s effects on your future income.

However, future loss of earnings involves direct losses to your income, which are usually ongoing and which you will continue to suffer. They can often be predicted with a decent level of accuracy.

This chapter discusses claiming for loss of earning capacity, supporting a claim for loss of earning capacity and valuing a claim for loss of earning capacity.

Serious injuries can prevent you from continuing the job you held before the accident. This is bad enough from an income point-of-view, but what if your job gave you more than just a salary? If your job was something you loved, a skilled craft, or a source of satisfaction then you might be able to claim additional compensation – in recognition of losing a positive part of your life. The legal term for this head of damage is ‘loss of congenial employment’.

It is similar to a loss of amenity – part of the injury aspect of your claim. Both aim to compensate you for losing enjoyment from life rather than for a direct financial loss. Loss of congenial employment is considered to be a distinct head of damage, however.

There are likely to be direct financial losses from losing your job and these should still be claimed. They will fall under other heads of damage (such as loss of earnings

This chapter discusses proving a loss of congenial employment, valuing a loss of congenial employment and switching solicitors.

This is another head of damage which considers ‘what might have been’ had the accident not affected your working life. Instead of looking at situations where you might lose your job (like a claim for loss of earning capacity) loss of chance concerns the career opportunities that the accident may have taken from you.

These aren’t the more mathematically predictable losses of a future loss of earnings claim. Loss of chance is focused on the possible earnings from a future career path which has now been denied to you.

Young claimants, who might never have had a job before the accident, are also eligible to claim for loss of chance. If it can be shown that the accident denied them the chance of pursuing an intended career, losses may be specifically claimed for this.

However, with all loss of chance claims, the possibilities in question must go beyond guesswork, speculation, or just hope. Many people have ambitions but there is no certainty these will be fulfilled. Even if an opportunity presents itself, all the other bits of someone’s life can stop them from pursuing it.

This chapter discusses the impact of a personal injury on your career prospects, and how to prove and value a loss of chance.

Another way in which an accident might affect your working life is through your pension. Your pension could be the main provision you have for your retirement, a nest-egg to help you in your later years. Even if you are many years away from retirement age, an accident which disrupts your earnings can have an impact on the value of your pension.

Ordinarily, a pension is built up through regular payments from your earnings. This could be as voluntary payments into a private pension or money your employer sets aside from your salary. If you are an employee, money put into workplace pensions is generally matched by your employer and the government, up to certain values.

An accident which prevents you from working can easily disrupt pension contributions. Your pension payments could be stopped temporarily as your income is affected, or you might be forced to take early retirement due to your injuries.

This chapter discusses proving a loss to your pension and calculating losses to your pension.

The natural instinct, when a loved one has been injured, is to do all you can to help them get better. If your injuries restrict your ability to do normal, everyday tasks, then your friends and family are likely to be the ones to provide care and assistance.

You might think you cannot claim compensation for this. After all, you haven’t paid them anything for their help and it is natural to want to help those closest to us. The fact is, however, such help would not be needed if the accident had not occurred. If you need care and assistance because of your injuries, your carers will be providing their time and effort to help you. It is a service which has value, and their actions represent a loss on their part – a loss which can be included in your claim.

This chapter discusses care and assistance in more detail and how to prove and value a care claim.

We have already looked at how injuries can affect your daily home life. This chapter looks at some similar heads of loss. Unlike daily care and assistance however, the losses in this chapter relate directly to your home and, in general, are carried out less frequently.

Housekeeping and home maintenance losses

If you are a housewife or househusband, it could be said that your job is to maintain your home. An injury can affect this just as much as any other kind of job. Whilst you may not be paid for your role, being unable to do it due to your injuries means that you have lost the value that it brings to your home.

This chapter discusses how to prove housekeeping and home maintenance losses, valuing housekeeping and home maintenance losses, future losses and other losses.

There are two main ways in which a personal injury claim and benefits can affect each other:

  1. If you start claiming benefits due to your injuries, some deductions may be required from your compensation. This is to prevent you from being compensated ‘twice’ for the same loss.
  2. If you have been claiming benefits before the accident, receiving compensation from a personal injury claim can influence any means-tests attached to your benefits.

This chapter discusses benefits and compensation.

When you make a claim for injuries, part of that claim is for the impact the injuries have had on your enjoyment of life. As mentioned in the ‘Your Injuries’ section, this is called loss of amenity and is usually compensated as part of your injury award.

However, certain ways in which your enjoyment of life has been affected might be claimed for under a separate head of damage called ‘loss of enjoyment’.

Loss of enjoyment claims are generally made in respect of particular events which you have been looking forward to. These could be:

  • A holiday.
  • A wedding.
  • A honeymoon.
  • Potentially any event which has been booked in advance and which you cannot enjoy to its full extent because of your injuries.

This chapter discusses how to prove loss of enjoyment and valuing loss of enjoyment.

Suffering injuries in an accident can make it difficult for you to get around, reducing your independence and changing your way of life. At the same time, an accident can lead to a number of necessary journeys, such as doctors’ appointments, hospital visits, or treatment sessions. We looked at the direct losses of getting better in an earlier section of the guide, but all of those losses may mean a great deal of travelling as well. Your travel expenses can easily mount up.

This chapter looks at the different kinds of losses which can arise from these situations, from common claims like taxi fares to rarer losses like adaptations to a vehicle following a severe injury.

The circumstances of your accident claim are unique to you. You may have suffered many losses which fall neatly into the different sections of this guide, but there is always the potential for other losses besides. This section is all about those ‘other losses’.

Your legal representatives should take the time to explore your losses with you, including any which may be less common. For various reasons, it may not be possible to include some of them in your claim, but it is always worth investigating your situation fully. If you do not feel your legal representatives are approaching your claim in this way, remember that you are always entitled to switch solicitors.

This chapter discusses miscellaneous expenses and other losses to consider.

 You are only entitled to compensation when you have successfully established your claim. As mentioned in the introduction to this guide, this means proving all elements of your claim – liability, causation, and quantum – on the balance of probabilities. For more straightforward claims, a Defendant may admit liability and causation, leaving only the extent and value of your losses to be proved.

When a personal injury claim is successful, compensation is normally paid as a one-off lump sum at the end – a ‘full and final’ settlement. This might be after a court hearing – where judgement has been made – or it could be after an offer to settle your claim has been accepted.

But this is not the only time when compensation might be paid. There are some situations where you might receive payments at other times. These are explored in this section.

This chapter discusses interim payments, provisional damages and periodical payments.

Interest can be awarded on personal injury compensation. This is not technically part of the compensation itself – it is more a recognition of the time where you have been kept from money which is rightfully yours.

However, you can only claim interest on your compensation if your case becomes involved in court proceedings and the claim is served.

If you settle your claim before any court proceedings are served, you cannot claim interest. Even if your case goes to court, the court has no power to award interest on any sums you have already recovered. This is one of the reasons why interim payments can be useful for the Defendant.

This chapter discusses damages, special damages and interest after a judgement.

Compensation can seem completely inadequate when a loved one has been killed in an accident. It is a loss which no amount of money can undo. But if you depended on your loved one for your livelihood, it is only right that financial worries should not be added to your distress.

Similarly, if your loved one was pursuing a claim for a personal injury they had suffered, their claim may be continued for the benefit of the people who will inherit it from them.

There are two broad categories of personal injury claim after a death:

  • Claims brought on behalf of the deceased’s estate.
  • Claims brought by deceased’s dependants, often called dependency claims.

In this chapter, we’ll discuss claiming on behalf of the deceased’s estate, dependency claims and how to calculate for claiming for a loss of life expectancy.

Securing compensation is rightly seen as a victory. You may have overcome many obstacles to do so, and endured a process which can be difficult and disheartening at times. When you have received your compensation, it is a chance to move on with your life and put the accident behind you.

However, a sudden, and potentially large, influx of money may present its own challenges. After all, it is not a bonus or a windfall. It is intended to compensate you for the accident and return you to the financial position you would have been in had the accident never occurred. For very severe injuries, the compensation may have to act as your income for life.

In this chapter we’ll discuss trusts and claiming for the cost of financial advice.

Accident

This term is used throughout this guide to refer to the wrong you have suffered. It is used purely for ease of reference and does not imply that no one was at fault, or that the other party’s actions were not intentional.

Administrators

If someone dies without a valid will, or without valid Executors, the people who manage and look after that person’s Estate are called administrators. Administrators’ duties include collecting together all of the Deceased’s property, selling assets, and paying the Estate’s debts.

Balance of Probabilities

This is a Standard of Proof. It is the required standard in personal injury claims (and other civil cases). In practice, it means that you must prove something as more likely to have happened than not. In your claim you must prove any facts upon which you rely on the balance of probabilities.

Causation

The question of how harm or loss was caused. For an injury claim, you must prove that the injuries you suffered were a consequence of the Accident. Even if Liability for an accident is accepted by the party you are claiming from, you then have to prove that the Accident caused your injuries.

Claimant

This is a general legal term to indicate the party who is making the claim. You will be referred to as the Claimant if you are making a personal injury claim.

CRU Certificate

A CRU certificate is issued by the Compensation Recovery Unit (CRU), part of the Department of Work and Pensions. The Defendant applies to the CRU to ascertain whether you have received any benefits which are recoverable and how much they need to withhold from your compensation. The CRU certificate confirms these details. If there are no recoverable benefits the certificate will read ‘Nil’.

Deceased

You have probably come across this particular term. It is often used in legal documents to refer to someone who has died. For example, ‘we enclose a copy of the Deceased’s will’.

Defendant

In general, this is a legal term used to indicate the party who is having a claim made against them. However, in this guide, the term is used a bit more loosely, referring to both the target of your claim and whoever will be compensating you for it in one. In reality, these might be different people.  For example, with most road traffic accidents the party you are claiming against (the other driver) will not be the same party who will end up paying your compensation (their insurance company). Technically, in that situation, the Defendant would be the other driver; their insurance company just foots the bill.

Dependant

A dependant is someone who can make a dependency claim. In the context of a fatal accident, a dependant can claim against someone who is liable for the death of a person upon whom they depended. The dependency could be financial or for some kind of service.

Estate

In general terms, a person’s estate is formed from everything they own at the time of their death. It includes their: money, property, assets, personal belongings and debts.

Executors

Someone appointed in a valid will to manage and look after a person’s Estate is called an executor. Executors’ duties include collecting together all of the Deceased’s property, selling assets, and paying the Estate’s debts.

Full and Final Settlement

If a settlement is termed ‘full and final’ it means that, once the settlement is accepted, you will be unable to claim anything more in relation to the accident in question.

General Damages

This is a term which is frequently used as short-hand for ‘compensation for your injuries’. However, technically it means damages or losses which are presumed to result from the wrong for which you are claiming. General damages can include both Pecuniary Loss (like future loss of earnings) and Non-Pecuniary Loss (like injuries).

Head of Damage or Head of Loss

These terms are used interchangeably to refer to the different ‘categories’ of loss you might be claiming for. For example, loss of earnings would be considered as one head of damage, ‘physiotherapy treatment’ would be another.

Liability

The question of who is legally responsible for the Accident. You could view it as who is to blame, but be aware that blame does not always mean liability. For example, a cleaner who leaves a puddle of water, which causes someone to slips, might be blameworthy, but their employer could also be liable for the incident.

Mitigation of Losses

Mitigation is doing all you can reasonably do to ensure that the losses you suffer (as a result of an accident) are kept to a minimum. This shouldn’t be seen as a way of ‘punishing’ the victim. Genuine, proven losses suffered through an accident which wasn’t their fault should be compensated. Instead, mitigation prevents an injury claim from being seen as a ‘blank cheque’.

Negligence

Negligence, in the legal sense, occurs in situations where someone owes a duty to take care in relation to someone else. If they breach this duty and this causes harm or damage to that other party, they have acted negligently. This can be through positive action or through failing to take action. An example would be an employer. They have a duty to their employees to safeguard their health as far as reasonably possible. If they provide employees with substandard safety equipment and an employee is harmed as a result, they will be liable to their employee for negligence.

Non-Pecuniary Loss

This refers to a loss which cannot be calculated to a definite figure. For example, injuries are non-pecuniary losses as there is always going to be some element of judgment required when valuing them. There is no mathematical formula to say how much a broken arm is ‘worth’.

Pain, Suffering, and Loss of Amenity (PSLA)

This refers to the injury element of a claim. It states exactly what is being claimed for – namely: the pain, the suffering, and the loss of enjoyment from your life which the injury has caused.

Pecuniary Loss

A pecuniary loss is one which is possible to calculate definitely – such as how much has been spent on medication due to an accident.

Quantum

This means ‘amount’ – the amount of damage or harm you have suffered. Or, to look at it another way, the amount of compensation you are claiming. You must prove the extent of your losses and injuries in order to prove the quantum of your injury claim.

Schedule of Loss

This is a document which details all of the losses you wish to claim in your case. The schedule should also set out the value of your losses and show any calculations used to arrive at these figures. It is important that the schedule is as accurate as possible. The court and the Defendant will treat it as the definitive statement of everything included in your claim.

Service or Serving a Claim

Service is the term used when documents are formally brought to another party’s attention. When a claim is served, it generally means sending certain legal documents and supporting evidence over to the Defendant – or asking the court to do this for you. Service is a vital part of starting court proceedings.

Standard of Proof

A standard of proof is the extent to which you have to prove something for it to be accepted by a court. For example, in your claim you may have to prove that the Defendant drove into your vehicle, or that you paid £7.00 for a parking ticket. The standard of proof for establishing both of these ‘facts’ is the Balance of Probabilities.

Statutory Sick Pay (SSP)

This is a minimum level of sick pay, set by statute, which employers must pay to eligible employees. SSP is set currently at £89.35 per week.

Trusts

A trust is a legal form of holding money or property. The most basic kind of trust involves a ‘settlor’ (the person creating the trust) giving assets to a ‘trustee’ (the person who holds and manages the assets) to look after for a ‘beneficiary’ (the person who is completely entitled to the assets and any income the assets may generate).

Trusts are a huge legal topic with many different forms and complications. In general however, different kinds of trust give the trustees and beneficiaries different powers and rights.

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I downloaded this personal injury guide and I can’t thank you enough for providing such useful information in a really easy to understand way. I was unsure whether to pursue my claim but I am now confident I can take a step forward in getting compensation.

Thank you for this ebook! So much information but so easy to understand and it gave me a real insight into how personal injury claims work and what I need to do next. Thank you Andrew Gray!

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